Obrządek pogrzebowy łowców-zbieraczy epoki kamienia w południowej Skandynawii i na Niżu Środkowoeuropejskim
Burial practices of hunter-gatherers in the Stone Age of Southern Scandinavia and the Middle European Plain
The paper analyses burial practices of hunters from the Stone Age, in the early and middle Holocene, i.e. in the Mesolithic and the Paraneolithic in southern Scandinavia and on the German and Polish Plain. Funeral rites have been characterized from many aspects, ranging from location of sites and size of burial grounds, the presence of relics of burial structures and “coffins”, orientation of a skeleton to the cardinal directions, the number of individuals in a grave, to a type of burial and a position of the deceased. Secondary and disturbed burials as well as cremation burials were more widely discussed. The treatment of particular individuals from collective burials was also analysed. Grave goods were discussed in detail, in terms of their type, location in a grave and connection with gender and age of the dead. Similarly, the occurrence of ochre was analysed. The diversity of different aspects of burial practices was primarily regionally and, if possible, also chronologically considered.
* Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28, 00-927 Warszawa
Aleksander Chrószcz*, Maciej Janeczek*, Tomasz Gralak**
Zwierzęce szczątki kostne z wielokulturowego stanowiska archeologicznego w miejscowości Górzec, stan. 13, pow. strzeliński, woj. dolnośląskie, Polska
Animal bone remains from the multicultural archaeological site in Górzec, the site 13, Strzelin county, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
The paper presents an analysis of bone remains from the settlement in Górzec, site 13, in the Strzelin county. They were described within four distinct chronological horizons:1. the Lusatian culture (the V period of the Bronze Age), 2. the La Tène culture (the La Tène period, LTC1 phase), 3. the Przeworsk culture (the Migration Period, D1 phase), 4. the Middle Ages (the 12th and 13th centuries). Based on the occurrence of bone remains of specific species, the structure of consumption in each period was established and an attempt was made to reconstruct environmental changes in the vicinity of the settlement.
* Zakład Anatomii Zwierząt, Wydział Medycyny Weterynaryjnej, Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu, ul Kożuchowska 1/3, 51-631 Wrocław
** Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, ul. Szewska 48, 50-139 Wrocław
Średniowieczne kamienne wieże ziemi chełmskiej
Medieval stone towers of the Chełm Land
Remains of three medieval stone towers are curiosities of the Chełm Land. They are located on the Cathedral Hill in Chełm, in Chełm-Bieławin and in Stołpie. The latter is the only one which has survived throughout the centuries in its almost original form, even though it was modified and restored in the past. In contrast, the tower from Bieławin has been almost completely destroyed. And the remains of the tower (or towers) from the Cathedral Hill in Chełm are hidden among ruins of the presently excavated residence complex of King Daniel of Galicia, in the south part of the hill.
* Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Al. Solidarności 105, 00-140 Warszawa
Rozwój technologii wytwarzania noży w średniowiecznym Wrocławiu w świetle badań metaloznawczych
The development of technology of knifes production in medieval Wrocław based on metallographic investigations
The metallographic examinations of the medieval knives from Wrocław were very useful in the determination of the technology of their production. The analysed knives come from several archaeological sites: early Middle Age (the Cathedral Island) and late medieval (the New Market Square). Investigation of the microhardness and microscopic observations of the items distinguished the various technologies of the knife’s manufacture. However, various properties of the knives do not correspond with their chronology, what was confirmed by the production of both soft and hard-blade knives at the same time.
Each of the above-named towers are similar in form and they all date back to the 13th century. However, many features which clearly distinguish them can be pointed out at the same time. Chosen aspects of the study of these structures are presented in the paper.
* Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, ul. Szewska 48, 50-139 Wrocław
Od pola bitewnego do obozu pracy: archeologia wojny domowej i dyktatury w Hiszpanii
From the battlefield to the labour camp: archaeology of Civil War and dictatorship in Spain
The author explores responses to political violence through the materiality of three aspects of the Civil War in Spain: military lines in the battle for Madrid, a concentration camp in Extremadura and a remote settlement of forced labourers and their families. He shows how archaeology's revelations reflect, qualify and enrich the story of human survival under the pall cast by a dictatorship. Sharing the inquiry with the public of today also revealed some of the disquieting mechanisms by which history is composed and how archaeology can be used to deconstruct it.
* Institute of Heritage Sciences, Spanish National Research Council, San Roque 2, 15704 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Szacunek dla faktów. Refleksje przy lekturze książki Andrzeja Kokowskiego Starożytna Polska
Respect for facts. Reflection on reading the book Starożytna Polska (Ancient Poland) by Andrzej Kokowski
The author questions the interpretation of the discoveries at the settlement in Imielin and considers unfounded some views on iron metallurgy presented by A. Kokowski in the book Starożytna Polska (Ancient Poland).
* ul. Zgrzebnioka 16/1, 40-520 Katowice
|Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk|