Iwona Sobkowiak-Tabaka, Zsolt Kasztovszky, Jacek Kabaciński, Katalin T. Biró, Bolgárka Maróti, Katalin Gméling
Transcarpathian contacts of the Late Glacial Societies of the Polish Lowlands
Identification of exotic raw-materials discovered within the context of Late Glacial societies of the North European Plain is a crucial factor in discussion about far-reaching exchange systems of goods and ideas. The present paper considers the occurrence of obsidian finds on the Polish Lowlands, hundreds of kilometers away from its sources located south of the Carpathians. The focus is on chemical recognition and identification of a large and unique assemblage of obsidian artefacts from two Polish localities based on non-invasive Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA). As a result, a clear connection of northern Polish obsidians with its outcrops located on the northern (Slovakian) fringe of the Tokaj Mountains was established that is the first detailed identification of obsidian finds from the territory of Poland ever. A review of Polish and Slovakian obsidian assemblages from the Late Glacial times and the importance of obsidian exchange and mobility for Late Palaeolithic societies of Central Europe are discussed supported by analytical results of PGAA.
Najstarsze osadnictwo mezolityczne w strefie zachodniobałtyckiej w świetle badań stanowiska Bolków 1
The oldest Mesolithic settlement in the Western Baltic Zone in the light of research on the site Bolków 1
Field research being conducted in recent years on the site in Bolków have yielded many important and interesting results. They include materials related to the oldest Mesolithic settlement in the European Plain being obtained in 2010-2011. This paper presents and discusses the most important ones. Two rich and well-preserved, spatially isolated campsites are generally dated back to 9600-9350 BP. They provide a basis for distinguishing two basic development phases of the oldest Mesolithic assemblages in the whole Western Baltic zone. The older cultural complex directly refers to the manufacturing traditions of local lowland Paleolithic formations from the Youngest Dryas.
Zorganizowane i wyspecjalizowane obozowisko zbieraczy? Z wyników badań traseologicznych i przestrzennych materiałów mezolitycznych ze stanowiska Ludowice 6
Organized and specialized camp of gatherers? From the results of use-wear and spatial analyze of the Mesolithic sources from site Ludowice 6
This article attempts to interpretation function and probable internal, spatial organization of the one from the Late Mesolithic camps, discovered at site Ludowice 6, Wąbrzeźno commune. The basis for conclusions drawn were primarily the results of use-wear analyze, which included all discovered flint artefacts. As the result, 155 specimens with traces of use were identified, dominated by silica plant processing tools (curved knives). It allowed the hypothesis of functional specialization of the camp. The differences discovered in tools structure of the individual flint scatters allowed also to comments on differences in their origin and interpretation of the activities carried out in their area. Spatial analysis conducted, made possible the identification of the raw materials processing zones and to formulate hypotheses concerning the internal arrangement of the usage area. The regularities observed here, in case of positive verification on other sites, can improve our knowledge on the organization of usable space of the Middle Stone Age hunters camps from Polish Lowland.
Nowe wyniki pomiaru wieku dla materiałów kultury badeńskiej w późnym neolicie Małopolski
New results of age measurement for materials of the Baden culture in the Late Neolithic in Lesser Poland
Up to 2006, the chronology of the Baden culture in Lesser Poland has been based on just 4 radiocarbon dates. As a result of such a situation, this culture was excluded from accounting it into chronological schemas of Late Neolithic/Eneolithic in both contexts: European as well as in the local one. The improvement of the state of research was caused in 2006 by publication of series of 7 dates. Analysis of these dates resulted in the sequence of important findings, but at the same time it made more visible deficiency of radiocarbon data in the research into the Baden culture in Lesser Poland. There was a need for carrying out planned radiocarbon analyzes. This aim started to be accomplished in 2012 within the research project funded by the Narodowe Centrum Nauki (National Science Centre Poland; number of project: N N109 181940). Obtained series of 12 markings doubled the number of radiocarbon dates for the settlement of the Baden culture in Lesser Poland. The article presents these results in the context all the dates obtained for the Baden culture in Lesser Poland.
Tomasz Purowski, Barbara Wagner
Badania składu chemicznego szkieł odkrytych na osadzie kultury lateńskiej w Podłężu koło Krakowa
Chemical analyses of glass from the settlement of the La Tene culture in Podłęże near Kraków
Analyses of elemental composition of 22 pieces of glass from 14 objects (6 bracelets, 7 beads and 1 necklace spacer), discovered on the settlement of the La Tène culture in Podłęże near Kraków, were made by the LA-ICP-MS method. 21 glass were melted with sand and natural soda, and the chemical composition of a cubic bead (dated to the La Tène period, but not related to the Celtic culture) was noticeably different from the other glassware. One item was produced using sand and plant ash (so apparently it was made much later than the Celtic glassware). Transparency and colour of the glass resulted due to: in the case of blue specimens – cobalt, purple – manganese, black – iron and titanium, yellow – lead antimonate, white – calcium antimonate, yellowish-white – calcium antimonate and manganese compounds, amber-coloured – iron.
Przyczynek do badań nad rolą psów w społecznościach środkowoeuropejskiego Barbaricum
Contribution to research on the role of dogs in the communities of the Central European Barbaricum
A considerable increase in sources concerning a cultural phenomenon referred to as the so-called dog burials in settlements of Przeworsk and Wielbark culture allows for a revision of the interpretations of this phenomenon that are present in existing literature. During the research of the last three decades, 48 archaeological sites, previously unknown to researchers of this problem, were discovered, containing the remains of 124 dogs. In addition to the so-called dog burials under the floors of houses, under fire pit stones, in pottery kilns and bloomeries or in wells, the remains are also disposed in garbage pits. Such a collection of sources allows not only to verify some assumptions of previous researchers of the so-called dog burials, but it also provides a possibility to raise new questions concerning purely utilitarian significance of these animals for members of cultures living in Central European Barbaricum.
Magdalena Sudoł, Ewa Bokiniec, Magdalena Krajcarz, Maciej T. Krajcarz, Agata Majewska, Oliwia Grafka
Human activity traces from shelter in Smoleń III (central part of Kraków-Częstochowa Upland) from the last centuries of Antiquity
This paper presents a number of finds dated to the Late Antiquity, from the cave site Shelter in Smoleń III, Pilica comm., Silesian Voivodeship. The objects on hand are connected with just one of the cultural episodes that were observed on the site. In the group of finds there are: a ceramic vessel dated to younger Pre-Roman period; animal bone remains possibly of a ritual character, which according to radiocarbon dating have been deposited around the beginning of the 2nd century BC; and a metal anchor-shaped key of a very wide potential dating – from the 2nd century BC till the Early Middle Ages. The finds have undergone the following analyses: descriptive, technological, comparative, taphonomical, radiocarbon and chromatographic. Given the small area of the shelter, the study permits to look in a new way at the seemingly poor materials of the Late Antiquity uncovered in caves of the Polish Jura chain, and the role of often overlooked small rock shelters of that time.
KEYWORDS: cave site, younger Pre-Roman period, Roman period, ceramic vessel, iron anchor-shaped key, animal bones, taphonomy, radiocarbon dating, chromatographic analysis
Silver disc-shaped plaque depicting a rider with a bird from the early medieval period found at Staré Město (Moravia, CZ)
In 1955, while research was being carried out at the remnants of an early medieval (9th century) church in Staré Město na Moravě (CZ), one of the best known artefacts and also symbols of Great Moravia was found – a silver disc-shaped plaque with a figural motif featuring a rider on a horse with a bird of prey sitting on his arm. This rider became known as “the falconer”. Since the comprehensive evaluation of the disc by K. Benda in 1962, several important researchers have expressed their opinion on the interpretation of the disc, particularly in recent years. Our study pays greater attention to two of them, namely the Hungarian archaeologist Cs. Bálint and the Czech zoologist J. Mlíkovský, after which a conclusion is provided by the author.
Małgorzata Markiewicz, Justyna Kolenda
3D visualization as a method of a research hypotheses presentation – the case of the medieval palace in Milicz
The bishop’s palace in Milicz was probably built in the late thirteenth or early fourteenth century. It was a brick building referring to the type of layout of princely buildings known in Silesia. Erection of the building in Milicz was connected with the creation of the Church Castellany in this area. Visualisation of the oldest phase of the bishop’s palace in Milicz is part of the project: Regni custodiam et clavem - Santok and clavis regni Poloniae - Milicz as an example of two border towns, implemented by the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences and financed from the funds of the National Program for the Development of Humanities for the years 2011-2017. Virtual reconstructions were based on the analysis and interpretation of source materials, in accordance with the guidelines contained in the London Charter. The purpose of the visualization is to introduce residents of Milicz and tourists to history of the building and, in the long run, to take steps by local authorities towards preservation and revitalization of the bishop’s palace.
|Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk|